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Competing and accelerating effects of anthropogenic nutrient inputs on climate-driven changes in ocean carbon and oxygen cycles

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INTRODUCTION

Global ocean biogeochemistry is known to be affected by human activities, although previous related studies focused primarily on the changes induced by climate change ( 1 ). Enhanced stratification associated with surface ocean warming reduces nutrient supply to the euphotic zone and enhances nutrient limitation, generally leading to decline in net primary production (NPP) ( 2 , 3 ). Warming-induced reduction in gas solubility and decreased carbon and oxygen transport to the ocean interior associated with increased stratification decrease oceanic carbon uptake and the dissolved oxygen inventory ( 4 – 7 ). Because these biogeochemical changes affect global oceanic ecosystems, the carbon cycle, and climate, it is crucial that comprehensive understanding regarding the impact of human activities on ocean biogeochemistry be realized.

Global nutrient cycles (e.g., nitrogen, phosphorus, and iron cycles) are also perturbed substantially by human activities such as fossil fuel combustion, land use change, increased food production, and fertilizer application ( 8 , 9 ). Current atmospheric and riverine fluxes of nitrogen to the ocean are estimated to be more than double than those of preindustrial levels, reaching magnitudes comparable to biological nitrogen fixation ( 10 – 12 ). It has also been estimated that atmospheric and […]

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